• Bulk type of systems (solid, liquid, ...)
    • Element local coordination environment
    • Precursor for Nano scale cluster
    • Size of Nano particle - poorly crystalline material
    • “Space group” for amorphous material
    • Local structural changing (1D, 2D, and 3D)
    • Coexistence mechanism, e.g., bimetallic alloy
    • Site occupancy in crystalline and amorphous materials
  • Surface speciation
    • Inner sphere absorbed complex above surface
    • Complex imbedded on the surface
    • Single-atom catalyst
    • Thin film

Available Equipments